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Lombard rule continued in northern Italy until 774, when the Carolingian Frankish King Charles I (later Emperor Charlemagne) invaded, deposed King Desiderius and proclaimed himself king of Italy.By this time, autonomous Lombard duchies were well established in the southern half of the peninsula in Benevento, Naples, Salerno (see the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1)) and Spoleto (see CENTRAL ITALY), separated from northern Italy by the expanding central Italian Papal territories which represented another obstacle to the northern kings imposing their authority throughout the country.Henceforth the northern Italian kingdom (north of the Papal territories) was administered as part of the Holy Roman Empire.Imperial authority in northern Italy had weakened by the mid-12th century, enabling the northern Lombard cities to establish considerable local autonomy, formalised in the Treaty of Konstanz which was agreed in 1183 by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa".Emperor Valentinian & his second wife had four children: b) (-May 394).Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam", adding that "magnus Theodosius" married Galla as his second wife.I am grateful to Morris Bierbrier for providing reference numbers from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire ("PLRE"), (marked "[MB]") which has not yet been consulted directly.

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The kingdom of Italy was first created in 476, from the remnants of the Roman empire.

The sole remaining emperor continued to rule in the east from Constantinople (see the document BYZANTIUM 395-1057), although the Byzantines retained outposts on the Italian mainland well into the 11th century.

After the death of the last Ostrogoth king, direct imperial rule was nominally restored.

Italy was not finally united until well into the 19th century, under the leadership of the kings of Sardinia of the family of the counts of Savoy.

The administrative influence of the Roman empire over western and southern Europe was diminishing by the early 5th century.


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